Sentimientos de la Nación

José María Morelos y Pavón

1º Que la América es libre e independiente de España y de toda otra Nación, Gobierno o Monarquía, y que así se sancione dando al mundo las razones.

2º Que la religión católica sea la única sin tolerancia de otra.

3º Que todos sus ministros se sustenten de todos y solos los diezmos y primicias, y el pueblo no tenga que pagar más subvenciones que las de su devoción y ofrenda.

4º Que el dogma sea sostenido por la jerarquía de la iglesia, que son el Papa, los obispos y curas, porque se debe arrancar toda planta que Dios no plantó: omnis plantatis quam non plantabit Pater meus Celestis cradicabitur. Mat. Cap. XV.

5º Que la Soberanía dimana inmediatamente del pueblo, el que sólo quiere depositarla en el Supremo Congreso Nacional Americano, compuesto de representantes de las provincias en igualdad de números.

6º Que los poderes Legislativo, Ejecutivo y Judicial estén divididos en los cuerpos compatibles para ejercerlos.

7º Que funcionarán cuatro años los vocales, turnándose, saliendo los más antiguos para que ocupen el lugar los nuevos electos.

8º La dotación de los vocales será una congrua suficiente y no superflua, y no pasará por ahora de 8,000 pesos.

9º Que los empleos sólo los americanos los obtengan.

10º Que no se admitan extranjeros, si no son artesanos capaces de instruir y libres de toda sospecha.

11º Que los Estados mudan costumbres y, por consiguiente, la Patria no será del todo libre y nuestra mientras no se reforme el Gobierno, abatiendo el tiránico, substituyendo el liberal, e igualmente echando fuera de nuestro suelo al enemigo español, que tanto se ha declarado contra nuestra Patria.

12º Que como la buena ley es superior a todo hombre, las que dicte nuestro Congreso deben ser tales, que obliguen a constancia y patriotismo, moderen la opulencia y la indigencia y de tal suerte se aumente el jornal del pobre, que mejore sus costumbres, alejando la ignorancia, la rapiña y el hurto.

13º Que las leyes generales comprendan a todos, sin excepción de cuerpos privilegiados; y que éstos sólo lo sean en cuanto al uso de su ministerio.

14º Que para dictar una ley se haga junta de sabios en el número posible, para que proceda con más acierto y exonere de algunos cargos que pudieran resultarle.

15º Que la esclavitud se proscriba para siempre y lo mismo la distinción de castas, quedando todos iguales, y sólo distinguirá a un americano de otro el vicio y la virtud.

16º Que nuestros puertos se franqueen a las naciones extranjeras amigas, pero que éstas no se internen al reino por más amigas que sean, y sólo habrá puertos señalados para el efecto, prohibiendo el desembarque en todos los demás, señalando el diez por ciento.

17º Que a cada uno se le guarden sus propiedades y respete en su casa como en un asilo sagrado, señalando penas a los infractores.

18º Que en la nueva legislación no se admita la tortura.

19º Que en la misma se establezca por Ley Constitucional la celebración del día 12 de diciembre en todos los pueblos, dedicados a la Patrona de nuestra Libertad, María Santísima de Guadalupe, encargando a todos los pueblos la devoción mensal.

20º Que las tropas extranjeras o de otro reino no pisen nuestro suelo, y si fuere en ayuda, no estarán donde la Suprema Junta.

21º Que no se hagan expediciones fuera de los límites del reino, especialmente ultramarinos; pero [se autorizan las] que no son de esa clase [para] propagar la fe a nuestros humanos de Tierradentro.

22º Que se quite de tributos, pechos e imposiciones que nos agobian y se señale a cada individuo un cinco por ciento de semillas y además efectos o otra carga igual, ligera, que no oprima tanto, como la Alcabala, el Estanco, el Tributo y otros; pues con esta ligera contribución y la buena administración de los bienes confiscados al enemigo, podrá llevarse el peso de la guerra y honorarios de empleados.

Chilpancingo, 14 de septiembre de 1813

23º Que igualmente se solemnice el día 16 de septiembre todos los años, como el día aniversario que se levanto la vos de la Independencia y nuestra santa Libertad comenzó, pues en ese día fue en el que se desplegaron los labios de la Nación para reclamar sus derechos con espada en mano para ser oída, recordado siempre el mérito del héroe, el Sr. Don Miguel Hidalgo y su compañero Dn. Ignacio Allende.

Respuestas en 21 de noviembre de 1813. Y por tanto, quedan abolidas éstas, quedando siempre sujetos al placer se S.A.S.




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